A history of how the film industry evolved into different phases before it became its present phase

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A history of how the film industry evolved into different phases before it became its present phase

Early years, — Origins The illusion of motion pictures is based on the optical phenomena known as persistence of vision and the phi phenomenon.

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The first of these causes the brain to retain images cast upon the retina of the eye for a fraction of a second beyond their disappearance from the field of sight, while the latter creates apparent movement between images when they succeed one another rapidly. Together these phenomena permit the succession of still frames on a motion-picture film strip to represent continuous movement when projected at the proper speed traditionally 16 frames per second for silent films and 24 frames per second for sound films.

Before the invention of photography, a variety of optical toys exploited this effect by mounting successive phase drawings of things in motion on the face of a twirling disk the phenakistoscopec. As photography was innovated and refined over the next few decades, it became possible to replace the phase drawings in the early optical toys and devices with individually posed phase photographs, a practice that was widely and popularly carried out.

There would be no true motion pictures, however, until live action could be photographed spontaneously and simultaneously.

This required a reduction in exposure time from the hour or so necessary for the pioneer photographic processes to the one-hundredth and, ultimately, one-thousandth of a second achieved in It also required the development of the technology of series photography by the British American photographer Eadweard Muybridge between and During that time, Muybridge was employed by Gov.

Leland Stanford of California, a zealous racehorse breeder, to prove that at some point in its gallop a running horse lifts all four hooves off the ground at once. Conventions of 19th-century illustration suggested otherwise, and the movement itself occurred too rapidly for perception by the naked eye, so Muybridge experimented with multiple cameras to take successive photographs of horses in motion.

Finally, inhe set up a battery of 12 cameras along a Sacramento racecourse with wires stretched across the track to operate their shutters. Marey invented the chronophotographic gun, a camera shaped like a rifle that recorded 12 successive photographs per second, in order to study the movement of birds in flight.

These images were imprinted on a rotating glass plate later, paper roll filmand Marey subsequently attempted to project them. Like Muybridge, however, Marey was interested in deconstructing movement rather than synthesizing it, and he did not carry his experiments much beyond the realm of high-speed, or instantaneous, series photography.

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Muybridge and Marey, in fact, conducted their work in the spirit of scientific inquiry; they both extended and elaborated existing technologies in order to probe and analyze events that occurred beyond the threshold of human perception. Those who came after would return their discoveries to the realm of normal human vision and exploit them for profit.

In in Newark, New Jersey, an Episcopalian minister named Hannibal Goodwin developed the idea of using celluloid as a base for photographic emulsions. The inventor and industrialist George Eastmanwho had earlier experimented with sensitized paper rolls for still photography, began manufacturing celluloid roll film in at his plant in Rochester, New York.

This event was crucial to the development of cinematography: It remained for someone to combine the principles embodied in the apparatuses of Muybridge and Marey with celluloid strip film to arrive at a viable motion-picture camera.

Such a device was created by French-born inventor Louis Le Prince in the late s. He shot several short films in Leeds, England, inand the following year he began using the newly invented celluloid film. He was scheduled to show his work in New York City inbut he disappeared while traveling in France.

Instead it was William Kennedy Laurie Dicksonworking in the West Orange, New Jersey, laboratories of the Edison Company, who created what was widely regarded as the first motion-picture camera.

Seeking to provide a visual accompaniment to the phonograph, Edison commissioned Dickson, a young laboratory assistant, to invent a motion-picture camera in Building upon the work of Muybridge and Marey, Dickson combined the two final essentials of motion-picture recording and viewing technology.A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company, employed during the "production" or "photography" phase, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture.

The History of Movies | Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication

Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The history of mass communications is relatively short in the scope of world history.

A history of how the film industry evolved into different phases before it became its present phase

Although news-sheets appeared as early as B.C., most forms of communication reaching large numbers of people have developed only in the last years. The History of Movies. Previous. Next. one filmmaker in particular emerged to transform the silent film into an art and to unlock its potential as a medium of serious expression and persuasion.

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D. W. Griffith, who entered the film industry as an actor in , quickly moved to a directing role in which he worked closely with his camera. The History of the Hollywood Movie Industry. Nickelodeons helped the movie industry move into the ’s by increasing the public appeal of film and generate more money for filmmakers, alongside the widespread use of theaters to screen World War I propaganda.

In the ’s, the past creativity of the film industry became homogenized. The history of animation started long before the development of The notion of instances smaller than a second that are necessary to break down an action into sufficient phases for fluent animation would not really develop before the 19th century.

became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie. A History of How The Film Industry Evolved Into Different Phases Before It Became Its Present Phase PAGES 2.

WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: the great depression, film industry evolution, hollywood films. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - .

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