Ethics natural law on genetic engineering

Utilitarianism Utilitarianism looks at the benefits and risks associated with genetics. One of the problems with this sort of approach is that it is impossible to know the effects of, say, GM crops. Genetically modified crops could potentially affect all farming, but how likely is this to occur? The hedonic calculus allows us to weigh up extent and certainty, but relies on us having a good idea what the extent will be and how likely the problems are to occur.

Ethics natural law on genetic engineering

Some writers use the term with such a broad meaning that any moral theory that is a version of moral realism — that is, any moral theory that holds that some positive moral claims are literally true for this conception of moral realism, see Sayre-McCord — counts as a natural law view.

Some use it so narrowly that no moral theory that is not grounded in a very specific form of Aristotelian teleology could count as a natural law view. But there is a better way of proceeding, one that takes as its starting point the central role that the moral theorizing of Thomas Aquinas plays in the natural law tradition.

Ethical responses - OCR Religious Studies Philosophy and Ethics A level The Ethics of Genetic Engineering Published:
Making revision simple, fast & effective Biotechnology Biotechnology James Watson and the late Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA in ; Watson has spoken in favour of genetic engineering Biotechnology isn't something new - selective breeding to create more useful varieties of animals and plants is a form of biotechnology that human beings have used for thousands of years.

Every introductory ethics anthology that includes material on natural law theory includes material by or about Aquinas; every encyclopedia article on natural law thought refers to Aquinas.

But we may take as the key features those theses about natural law that structure Ethics natural law on genetic engineering overall moral view and which provide the basis for other theses about the natural law that he affirms.

For Aquinas, there are two key features of the natural law, features the acknowledgment of which structures his discussion of the natural law at Question 94 of the Prima Secundae of the Summa Theologiae.

The fundamental thesis affirmed here by Aquinas is that the natural law is a participation in the eternal law ST IaIIae 91, 2. The precepts of the natural law are binding by nature: This is so because these precepts direct us toward the good as such and various particular goods ST IaIIae 94, 2.

The good and goods provide reasons for us rational beings to act, to pursue the good and these particular goods. As good is what is perfective of us given the natures that we have ST Ia 5, 1the good and these various goods have their status as such naturally.

It is sufficient for certain things to be good that we have the natures that we have; it is in virtue of our common human nature that the good for us is what it is. The precepts of the natural law are also knowable by nature.

BBC - Ethics - Animal ethics: Biotechnology

This knowledge is exhibited in our intrinsic directedness toward the various goods that the natural law enjoins us to pursue, and we can make this implicit awareness explicit and propositional through reflection on practice. Aquinas takes it that there is a core of practical knowledge that all human beings have, even if the implications of that knowledge can be hard to work out or the efficacy of that knowledge can be thwarted by strong emotion or evil dispositions ST IaIIae 94, 6.

On the side of metaphysics, it is clear that the natural law view is incompatible with atheism: It is also clear that the paradigmatic natural law view rules out a deism on which there is a divine being but that divine being has no interest in human matters.

Nor can one be an agnostic while affirming the paradigmatic natural law view: On the side of moral philosophy, it is clear that the natural law view is incompatible with a nihilism about value, that is, the rejection of the existence of values.

“Natural law theory is the best way to approach - A Viking's RS Ramblings

It is also incompatible with a wholesale skepticism about value, for the natural law view commits one to holding that certain claims about the good are in fact knowable, indeed, knowable by all. Is there anything distinctive about the normative natural law position? Aquinas says that the fundamental principle of the natural law is that good is to be done and evil avoided ST IaIIae 94, 2.

This is, one might say, a principle of intelligibility of action cf.

Ethics natural law on genetic engineering

But no one can in acting simply pursue good — one has to pursue some particular good. And Aquinas holds that we know immediately, by inclination, that there are a variety of things that count as good and thus to be pursued — life, procreation, knowledge, society, and reasonable conduct ST IaIIae 94, 2; 94, 3 are all mentioned by Aquinas though it is not clear whether the mentioned items are supposed to constitute an exhaustive list.

The important task, then, is to identify the ways in which an act can be intrinsically flawed. An act might be flawed through a mismatch of object and end — that is, between the immediate aim of the action and its more distant point.Ethics Natural Law On Genetic Engineering Essay  Ethics essay – Genetic engineering a.) Explain the main ethical principles of the religion you have studied with regard to genetic engineering Genetic engineering plays quite a major role in our society, and its influence is only going to increase.

Ethics resources for students and teachers OCR A level RS Philosophy and Ethics. Ethical theories include Kant, Natural Law, Situation Ethics, Virtue Ethics and Utilitarianism.

Ethical issues include Abortion, Euthanasia, Genetic Engineering, War, Infertility Treatment. ‘Natural law theory’ is a label that has been applied to theories of ethics, theories of politics, theories of civil law, and theories of religious morality. Natural Law – “right reason in agreement with nature” In the OCR specification, natural law and situation ethics are applied to euthanasia (and in the Year 2 part of the specification all moral theories including natural law are applied to issues in sexual ethics – premarital sex, extramarital sex and homosexuality).

However, Natural Law could also be seen as being the best approach to the issues surrounding genetic engineering. Gene therapy would help save people’s lives, and natural law would approve of issues such as gene therapy, for it fulfils the primary precept of “preservation of the innocent/self-preservation”.

introducing the science of genetic engineering and philosophical ethics as separate topics, their resulting application of this hybrid method is genetic engineering is wrong simply because it is unnatural or against In a detailed section on theology, they discuss issues such as natural law and the stewardship mentality that humans "can.

Genetic Engineering, Natural Law, Human Dignity, Divine Action, and the Problem of Evil